Following the establishment of the University of Ilorin as a University College of the University of Ibadan by the Federal Government of Nigeria in September, 1975, the Faculty of Science was one of three Foundation Faculties that started Academic business on 23rd October, 1976.

The five foundation departments were Biological Sciences,Chemistry, Geology and Mineral Sciences, Mathematics and Physics. In the 1977/78 Session two more departments,Biochemistry and Statistics were added. The department of Biological Sciences was splitted into three, namely Microbiology,Plant Biology and Zoology in 2000/2001 academic session. while Computer Science was transferred to Faculty of Communication and Information Sciences in 2008/2009 session. Currently there are ten (10) programmes in the nine (9) Departments of the Faculty. Chemistry department has two programmes which are Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry.